Tikz Examples in Re-composing McQuail's Textbook

Last month re-composed the classic Textbook, McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory, the following are some tikz examples in re-making book illustrations. To try these examples, pls put below codes into the preamble of your document.

\usepackage{tikz} % Required for drawing custom shapes


# 0 Positioning Map Figure

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=.9,
line/.style = {draw=blue!50!gray!25, line width=2mm,
{Triangle[length=6mm,width=9mm]}-{Triangle[length=6mm,width=9mm]}},
brand/.style = {font=\small, text=blue!20!black!90,
align=left,anchor=west}
]
\draw[help lines, color=gray!30, dashed] (-5.9,-6.9) grid (5.9,6.9);
\draw[line] (-6,0) node[left](B){\rotatebox{90}{Short term}}
--(6,0) node[right]{\rotatebox{270}{Long term}};
\draw[line] (0,-7) node[below]{Unplanned effects}
--(0,7) node[above](A){Planned effects};
\node[align=center,text width=3cm] at (0,8) {{\profonta Intentionality}};
\node[align=center] at (-7,0) {\rotatebox{90}{\profonta Time}};
\node[brand] at (1,1.5) {$\bullet$Distribution of knowledge};
\node[brand] at (1.3,2.5) {$\bullet$Diffusion of innovations};
\node[brand] at (1,3.5) {$\bullet$News Diffusion};
\node[brand] at (1.3,5) {$\bullet$Development diffusion};
\node[brand,anchor=east] at (-1,1) {Agenda-setting$\bullet$};
\node[brand,anchor=east] at (-1,1.5) {Framing$\bullet$};
\node[brand,anchor=west] at (-4,2.7) {$\bullet$News learning};
\node[brand,anchor=east] at (-2.2,4) {Media campaign$\bullet$};
\node[brand,anchor=west] at (-5,5.3) {$\bullet$Individual response};
\node[brand,anchor=west] at (-3.5,6.3) {$\bullet$Propaganda};
\node[brand,anchor=east] at (-2.4,-2) {Individual reaction$\bullet$};
\node[brand,anchor=east] at (-2.4,-3.7) {Collective reaction$\bullet$};
\node[brand,anchor=east] at (-2.4,-5.7) {Policy effects$\bullet$};
\node[brand] at (3,-.8) {$\bullet$Social control};
\node[brand] at (3,-1.6) {$\bullet$Socialization};
\node[brand] at (.8,-2.4) {$\bullet$Event outcomes};
\node[brand] at (1.9,-3.2) {$\bullet$Reality defining};
\node[brand] at (2.3,-4) {$\bullet$Institutional change};
\node[brand] at (.4,-4.8) {$\bullet$Displacement};
\node[brand] at (4,-5.04) {$\bullet$Cultural and\\ social change};
\node[brand] at (2.8,-6.3) {$\bullet$Social Integration};
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{A typology of media effects. Effects can be located on two dimensions: that of time span and that of intentionality}
\label{fig:typome}
\end{figure}


# 1 Matrix Map Figure

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[squares/.style={align=center, text width=2.5cm,  minimum width=2.5cm, minimum height=2.5cm}]
\node[squares,fill=red!11] (A) at (0,0) {\textbf{Allocation}};
\node[squares,fill=blue!11,anchor=west] (B) at (A.east) {\textbf{Registration}};
\node[squares,fill=blue!11,anchor=north] (C) at (A.south){\textbf{Consultation}};
\node[squares,fill=red!11,anchor=north] (D) at (B.south) {\textbf{Conversation}};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(A)(B)(C)(D)] {};
\draw[>=latex,->, thick] ($(A.east)+(-1,-.3)$) -- ($(C.east)+(-1,.5)$);
\draw[>=latex,->, thick] ($(A.east)+(-1,-.3)$) -- ($(D.east)+(-2,.5)$);
\node[align=center,anchor=south,yshift=5mm] at (A.north east) {\itshape\centering Control of information store};
\node[anchor=east, xshift=0mm] at (A.west) {\rotatebox{90}{\parbox{1.2cm}{Central}}};
\node[anchor=east,text=black,xshift=-6mm,align=right] at (A.south west) {\rotatebox{90}{\parbox{4cm}{\itshape\centering Control of time and choice of subject}}};
\node[anchor=east,xshift=0mm] at (C.west) {\rotatebox{90}{\parbox{1.5cm}{Individual}}};
\node[anchor=north, yshift=5.5mm] at (A.north) {Central};
\node[anchor=north, yshift=5.5mm] at (B.north) {Individual};
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{A typology of information traffic. Communication relationships are differentiated according to the capacity to control the supply and the choice of content; the trend is from allocutory to consultative or conversational modes (Bordewijk and van Kaam, 1986)}
\label{fig:typeit}
\end{figure}


# 2 Tree Style Figure

The Output: The codes:

\tikzset{
basic/.style  = {draw, text width=1cm, drop shadow, rectangle},
root/.style   = {basic, rounded corners=2pt, thin, align=center,text width=2cm, font=\bfseries,
fill=blue!20},
level 2/.style = {basic, rounded corners=5pt, thin,align=center, fill=green!20,
text width=6em},
level 3/.style = {basic, thin, align=center, font=\itshape, fill=pink!20, text width=6.5em}
}
\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[
level 1/.style={sibling distance=40mm},
edge from parent/.style={->,draw},
>=latex]
% root of the the initial tree, level 1
\node[root] {Objectivity}
% The first level, as children of the initial tree
child {node[level 2] (c1) {Factuality}}
child {node[level 2] (c2) {Impartiality}};
% The second level, relatively positioned nodes
\begin{scope}[every node/.style={level 3}]
\node [below of = c1, xshift=15pt] (c11) {Truth};
\node [below of = c11] (c12) {Relevance};
\node [below of = c12] (c13) {Informativeness};

\node [below of = c2, xshift=15pt] (c21) {Balance};
\node [below of = c21] (c22) {Neutrality};
\end{scope}
% lines from each level 1 node to every one of its "children"
\foreach \value in {1,2,3}
\draw[->] (c1.195) |- (c1\value.west);
\foreach \value in {1,...,2}
\draw[->] (c2.195) |- (c2\value.west);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{Component criteria of objectivity (Westerstahl, 1983)}
\label{fig:ccoo}
\end{figure}


# 3 Another Tree Style Figure

The Output: The codes:

\tikzset{concept/.append style={fill={none}}}
\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=0.8]
\path[mindmap,concept color=black,text=black,level 1 concept/.append style=
{every child/.style={concept color=blue!50},sibling angle=40}]
node[concept,scale=0.7] {\Huge \textbf{Media}}
[clockwise from=90]
child[concept color=blue] { node[concept] { Clients} }
child[concept color=red] { node[concept] {Social institutions} }
child[concept color=blue] { node[concept] { Audience} }
child[concept color=red] { node[concept] {Pressure and interest groups} }
child[concept color=blue] { node[concept] { Referents} }
child[concept color=red] { node[concept] { Regulators} }
child[concept color=blue] { node[concept] { Sources} }
child[concept color=red] { node[concept] { Owners} }
child[concept color=blue] { node[concept] { Public opinion} };
\end{tikzpicture}

\caption{Lines of accountability between media and external agents in relation to publication}
\label{fig:lamea}
\end{figure}


# 4 Set Operations and Venn Diagram

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=1.2]
\begin{scope}[blend group=soft light]
\fill[red!30!white]   ( 90:1) circle (2);
\fill[green!30!white] (210:1) circle (2);
\fill[blue!30!white]  (330:1) circle (2);
\end{scope}
\node at ( 90:2.1)    {\textbf{Economics}};
\node at (210:2.1)    {\textbf{Politics}};
\node at (330:2.23)    {\textbf{Technology}};
\node [text width=1.8cm,align=center] {\textbf{Media institutions}};
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{The media are at the centre of three overlapping kinds of influence}
\label{fig:mctoki}
\end{figure}


# 5 Circle Pie Figure

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[text=black,
border/.style={line width=37mm},
every node/.style={align=center},
pin distance=17mm，
]
\foreach \angle/\col [remember=\angle as \last (initially 45)] in
{135/blue!21, 225/cyan!33, 315/green!22, 403/red!21}{
\draw[\col, border] (\last:2cm)
\draw[white, line width=2mm] (\last:1.3)--++(\last:2.7);
}
\node[line width=1.7mm, draw, circle, minimum width=3.3cm, white, fill=yellow!51] (core) {};
\coordinate (O) at (0,0);
\draw (O) -- (90:1.56);
\draw (O) -- (210:1.56);
\draw (O) -- (330:1.56);
\path (O) -- node{Tech-\\nical} (40:1.56);
\path (O) -- node{Man-\\agement} (150:1.7);
\path (O) -- node{Media\\ Professional} (270:1.56);
\node[font=\itshape\small,text width=5cm,align=center,yshift=10mm] at (core.north) {\textbf{E}vents plus\\constant information  and\\ culture supply(sources)};
\node[font=\itshape\small,text width=2cm,align=center,xshift=-8.8mm,yshift=0mm] (ww) at (core.west) {\textbf{C}ompetitors\\\textbf{N}ews/\\information\\ agencies\\\textbf{A}dvertisers\\\textbf{O}wners\\\textbf{U}nions};
\node[font=\itshape\small,text width=5cm,align=center,yshift=-8mm] at (core.south) {\textbf{D}istribution channels\\\textbf{A}udience interest/demand};
\node[font=\itshape\small,text width=2cm,align=center,xshift=8.8mm,yshift=0mm] (ee) at (core.east) {\textbf{L}egal/\\political\\control\\ \textbf{P}ressure\\groups\\\textbf{O}ther social\\institutions};
\node[font=\bfseries,text width=1.5cm,align=center,xshift=4.8mm,yshift=0mm] at (ee.east) {\rotatebox{270}{Social and political pressures}};
\node[font=\bfseries,text width=1.7cm,align=center,xshift=-5mm,yshift=0mm] at (ww.west) {\rotatebox{90}{Economic pressures}};
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{The media organization in a field of social forces}
\label{fig:mofsf}
\end{figure}


# 6 Circles Relation Figure

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[squares/.style={draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=5cm}]
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=5cm,fill=red!11] (A) at (0,0) {};
\node[yshift=-3cm] (A1) at (A) {\textbf{Unitary model}};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=5cm,fill=blue!11,xshift=4cm] (B) at (A.east) {};
\node[align=center,text width=4cm,yshift=-3cm] (B7) at (B) {\textbf{Pluralism model} (diversity in unity)};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=blue!11] (B1) at (B) {};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=blue!11,xshift=.4cm,yshift=.8cm] (B2) at (B1.north east) {};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=blue!11,xshift=-.4cm,yshift=.8cm] (B3) at (B1.north west) {};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=blue!11,xshift=1.5cm,yshift=-.6cm] (B4) at (B1) {};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=blue!11,xshift=-1.5cm,yshift=-.6cm] (B5) at (B1) {};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=blue!11,yshift=-1.6cm] (B6) at (B1) {};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=3cm,fill=green!11,yshift=-4cm] (C) at (A.south){};
\node[align=center,text width=4.5cm,yshift=-3.5cm] (C7) at (C) {\textbf{Core-periphery model} (unity in diversity)};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.3cm,fill=green!11] (C1) at (C) {};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=green!11,xshift=.4cm,yshift=.8cm] (C2) at (C1.north east) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(C2)+(0,0)$) -- ($(C2)+(1,1)$);
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=green!11,xshift=-.4cm,yshift=.8cm] (C3) at (C1.north west) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(C3)+(0,0)$) -- ($(C3)+(-1,1)$);
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=green!11,xshift=1.5cm,yshift=-.6cm] (C4) at (C1) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(C4)+(0,0)$) -- ($(C4)+(1,-1)$);
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=green!11,xshift=-1.5cm,yshift=-.6cm] (C5) at (C1) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(C5)+(0,0)$) -- ($(C5)+(-1,-1)$);
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=green!11,yshift=-1.6cm] (C6) at (C1) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(C6)+(0,0)$) -- ($(C6)+(0,-1.4)$);
\node[yshift=-4cm] (D) at (B.south) {};
\node[align=center,text width=4cm,yshift=-3.5cm] (D7) at (D) {\textbf{Breakup model} (fragmentation)};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.3cm,fill=yellow!11] (D1) at (D) {};
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=yellow!11,xshift=.4cm,yshift=.8cm] (D2) at (D1.north east) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(D2)+(0,0)$) -- ($(D2)+(1,1)$);
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=yellow!11,xshift=-.4cm,yshift=.8cm] (D3) at (D1.north west) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(D3)+(0,0)$) -- ($(D3)+(-1,1)$);
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=yellow!11,xshift=1.5cm,yshift=-.6cm] (D4) at (D1) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(D4)+(0,0)$) -- ($(D4)+(1,-1)$);
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=yellow!11,xshift=-1.5cm,yshift=-.6cm] (D5) at (D1) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(D5)+(0,0)$) -- ($(D5)+(-1,-1)$);
\node[draw=black!55,circle,align=center,minimum width=1.5cm,fill=yellow!11,yshift=-1.6cm] (D6) at (D1) {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(D6)+(0,0)$) -- ($(D6)+(0,-1.4)$);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{Four stages of audience fragmentation (McQuail, 1997:138)}
\label{fig:fsafra}
\end{figure}


# 7 Pyramid or Hierarchy Figure

The output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[ht]
\centering
{\profonta Few Cases}\\
\begin{tikzpicture}[x=1.8cm,y=1.5cm]
\coordinate (A) at (-3,-1) {};
\coordinate (B) at (3,-1) {};
\coordinate (C) at (0,5) {};
\foreach \A/\col [count=\i,evaluate=\i as \j using 12*\i] in {{\textbf{Intrapersonal}\\e.g.\ processing information}, {\textbf{Interpersonal}\\e.g.\ dyad, couple},{\textbf{Intragroup and Intergroup or association}\\e.g.\ family, local community},{\textbf{Institutional or Orgnizational}\\e.g.\ political system or business firm},{\textbf{Society-wide Networks}\\e.g.\ mass communication}}
\draw[fill=myred!\j] (C)--([shift={(-.5*\i,1*\i)}]B)--node[above,align=center] {\A}([shift={(.5*\i,1*\i)}]A)--cycle;
\end{tikzpicture}\\
{\profonta Many Cases}
\caption{The pyramid of communication networks (Level of communication process): mass communication is one amongst several processes of social communication}
\label{fig:fpyra}
\end{figure}


# 8 Triangle Chart Figure

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}
\node[] (A) at (0,0) {Sign};
\node[yshift=-1.3cm] (B) at (A){Composed of};
\node[yshift=-1.3cm] (C) at (B){Signifier plus Signified};
\node[align=center,text width=3cm,xshift=5cm] (D) at (C.east){Referent (external reality)};
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(A.south)+(-.3,.1)$) -- ($(B.west)+(.39,.3)$);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(B.west)+(.09,-.17)$) -- ($(C.west)+(.3,.3)$);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(A.south)+(.3,.1)$) -- ($(B.east)+(-.39,.3)$);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(B.east)+(-.09,-.17)$) -- ($(C.east)+(-.3,.3)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (C) --node[color=black,midway,above,    yshift=-1mm] {Signification} (D);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{Elements of semiology. Signs in meaning systems have two elements: physical plus associated meanings in the culture and in use}
\label{fig:essmse}
\end{figure}


# 9 Process Chain Figure

## 9.0 First Example

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[
second/.style={align=center,text width=2.2cm,  minimum width=2cm, minimum height=2.3cm,fill=green!11},
third/.style={align=center,text width=4cm,  minimum width=3cm, minimum height=1.3cm,fill=green!11},
]
\node[draw,align=center,fill=green!11,text width=3cm,  minimum width=3cm, minimum height=.7cm] (A) at (0,0) {\textbf{Social Structure}};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(A)] {};
\node[second,xshift=-2.3cm,yshift=-1.7cm] (B1) at (A.south west) {\textbf{Individual}\\Situation and needs};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(B1)] {};
\node[second,xshift=2.3cm,yshift=-1.7cm] (B2) at (A.south east) {\textbf{Mass media structure}\\Institution and output};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(B2)] {};
\node[third,yshift=-6cm] (C) at (A){\textbf{Media behaviour}\\(habits of media use)};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(C)] {};
\node[draw,align=center,fill=red!11,text width=3.3cm,  minimum width=3cm, minimum height=.7cm,yshift=-2cm] (D) at (C) {\textbf{Media orientation}};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(D)] {};
\node[align=center,text width=3.3cm,  minimum width=3cm, minimum height=1.3cm,fill=blue!11,yshift=-2cm] (E) at (D) {\textbf{Media exposure}\\(actual media use)};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(E)] {};
\node[align=center,text width=2.6cm,  minimum width=3cm, minimum height=1.3cm,fill=blue!11,xshift=-2.4cm] (E1) at (E.west) {\textbf{Individual's circumstances}};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(E1)] {};
\node[align=center,text width=2.6cm,  minimum width=3cm, minimum height=1.3cm,fill=blue!11,xshift=2.4cm] (E2) at (E.east) {\textbf{Media content}};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(E2)] {};
\node[draw,align=center,fill=red!11,text width=4cm,  minimum width=3cm, minimum height=.7cm,yshift=-2cm] (F) at (E) {\textbf{Social context of use}};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,fit=(F)] {};
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A.west) -- ++(0,0) -- ++(0,0) -| (B1.north);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A.east) -- ++(0,0) -- ++(0,0) -| (B2.north);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (B1.east) -- ++(0,0) --node[color=black,midway,below,xshift=1.5cm,yshift=-1cm] {\parbox{2.6cm}{Motivation/ gratification sought}}  ++(0,0) -| ($(C.north)+(-1,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (B2.west) -- ++(0,0) --node[color=black,midway,below,xshift=-.9cm,yshift=-1.27cm] {\parbox{2.6cm}{Availability/ accessibility}}  ++(0,0) -| ($(C.north)+(1,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,dashed,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (C.west) -- ++(0,0) --node[color=black,midway,left,yshift=1.2cm,xshift=-1.75cm] {\rotatebox{90}{Feedback}}  ++(0,0) -| (B1.south);
\draw[>=latex,->,dashed,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (C.east) -- ++(0,0) --node[color=black,midway,left,yshift=1.2cm,xshift=2.4cm] {\rotatebox{270}{Feedback}}  ++(0,0) -| (B2.south);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (C.south) -- (D.north);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (D.south) -- (E.north);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (E1) -- (E);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (E2) -- (E);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (F) -- (E);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{A structural model of media use (McQuail, 1997:69, after Weibull, 1985)}
\label{fig:smmuse}
\end{figure}


## 9.1 Second Example

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[
second/.style={inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,align=center,text width=2.9cm,  minimum width=2.9cm, minimum height=1.3cm,fill=green!11},
]
%%%Audience side to Media side
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,align=center,fill=red!11,text width=2cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.7cm] (A) at (0,0) {\textbf{1}.Person};
\node[yshift=.8cm] at (A) {\textbf{Audience side}};
\node[align=center,text width=2.5cm,minimum width=1cm,minimum height=1cm,yshift=-2cm] (A1) at (A) {\textbf{3}.Media-related needs};
\node[align=center,text width=2.5cm,minimum width=1cm,minimum height=1cm,yshift=-2cm] (A2) at (A1){\textbf{4}.Tastes and preferences};
\node[second,yshift=-2cm] (A3) at (A2){General content preference set};
\node[align=center,text width=2.5cm,minimum width=1cm,minimum height=1cm,yshift=-2.5cm] (A4) at (A3){\textbf{B}.Structure of provision};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,align=center,fill=red!11,text width=3cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.7cm,yshift=-2.2cm] (A5) at (A4) {\textbf{A}.Media system};
\node[yshift=-.8cm] at (A5) {\textbf{Media side}};
%% center three
\node[second,xshift=4.5cm] (B) at (A3){Specific content choice};
\node[second,xshift=4.5cm] (C) at (B){Media use};
%% D Audience to Media
\node[align=center,text width=3cm,minimum width=1cm,minimum height=1cm,xshift=1.7cm,yshift=2.3cm] (D1) at (A2.north east) {\textbf{2}.Social-cultural location};
\node[align=center,text width=2cm,minimum width=1cm,minimum height=.7cm,xshift=1.2cm,yshift=-1.2cm] (D2) at (D1.east) {\textbf{5}.Availability};
\node[align=center,text width=3cm,minimum width=1cm,minimum height=1cm,xshift=-.7cm,yshift=-1.7cm] (D3) at (D2) {\textbf{6}.Awareness of choice};
%%D media to media
\node[align=center,text width=3cm,minimum width=1cm,minimum height=1cm,xshift=1.1cm,yshift=.7cm] (D5) at (A5.north east) {\textbf{C}.Available content options};
\node[align=center,text width=1cm,minimum width=1cm,minimum height=.7cm,xshift=.3cm,yshift=.3cm] (D6) at (D5.north east) {\textbf{D}.Publicity};
\node[align=center,text width=2.2cm,minimum width=1cm,minimum height=1cm,xshift=2.2cm,yshift=.3cm] (D7) at (D6.north east) {\textbf{E}.Timing/ presentation};
%%
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A) -- (A1);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A1) -- (A2);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A2) -- (A3);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A5) -- (A4);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A4) -- (A3);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A3) -- (B);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (B) -- (C);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A.east) -- ++(0,0) -- ++(0,0) -| (D1.north);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (D1.east) -- ++(0,0) -- ++(0,0) -| (D2.north);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (D3) -- ++(1,0) --node[color=black,midway,above,xshift=1.7cm,yshift=-1mm] (D4) {plus \textbf{7}.Context}  ++(0,0) -| ($(C.north)+(.6,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(D2.east)+(.3,0)$) -- ++(0,0) -- ++(0,0) -| ($(D4.north)+(.3,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (A5.east) -- ++(0,0) -- ++(0,0) -| (D5.south);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (D5.north) -- ++(0,.3) -- (D6.west);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(D6.north)+(.4,0)$) -- ++(0,.3) -- (D7.west);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=2pt] (D7) -- ++(1,0) -- ++(0,0) -| ($(C.south)+(.6,0)$);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{An integrated model of the process of media choice}
\label{fig:impmc}
\end{figure}


## 9.2 Third Example

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[
second/.style={inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,ultra thick,rounded corners=2pt,align=center,text width=2.9cm,  minimum width=2.9cm, minimum height=1.3cm,fill=green!11},
]
%%%
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=red!11,text width=2.5cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.5cm] (A) at (0,0) {Point of entry};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=green!11,text width=2cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.9cm,yshift=-1.3cm] (B1) at (A) {TV act};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=green!11,text width=2cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.9cm,xshift=-3cm] (B2) at (B1) {TV arousal};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=green!11,text width=2cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.9cm,xshift=3cm] (B3) at (B1) {TV\\[-.2em] alternatives};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=green!11,text width=2.5cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=1cm,yshift=-1.3cm,xshift=-1cm] (C1) at (B1.south west) {TV perceived\\[-.2em] consequences};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=green!11,text width=2.5cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=1cm,yshift=-1.3cm,xshift=1cm] (C2) at (B1.south east) {TV perceived\\[-.2em] reality};
%Dashed square
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,dashed,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,minimum width=8.5cm, minimum height=3.2cm,yshift=-.9cm] (R) at (B1) {};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=2cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.5cm,yshift=-5cm] (D) at (A) {$P$ TV act};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,diamond,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=1.1cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.2cm,xshift=2.5cm] (D1) at (D) {$P=0$};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,diamond,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=1.1cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.2cm,yshift=-1.3cm] (E) at (D) {$P>0$};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=2.2cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.5cm,yshift=-1.3cm] (F) at (E) {Opportunity};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,diamond,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=1.1cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.2cm,xshift=2.5cm] (F1) at (F) {NO};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,diamond,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=1.1cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.2cm,yshift=-1.3cm] (G) at (F) {YES};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=3.5cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=.5cm,yshift=-1.5cm] (H) at (G) {Display behaviour};
%%%draw arrows
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (A) -- (B1);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (B1.west) -- ++(0,0) -- ++(0,0) -| ($(C1.north)+(.6,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (B1.east) -- ++(0,0) -- ++(0,0) -| ($(C2.north)+(-.6,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (B1) -- (D);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] ($(B2.south)+(-.7,0)$) -- ++(0,-3.23) --node[color=black,midway,above,xshift=1cm,yshift=-1mm] (D4) {Input}  ++(0,0) -- (D.west);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (D) -- (D1);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (D1) -- ($(D1.east)+(1.33,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (D) -- (E);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (E) -- (F);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (F) -- (F1);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (F1) -- ($(F1.east)+(1.33,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,-,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (F) -- (G);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (G) -- (H);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1.5pt] (H.east) -- ++(2.8,0) -- ++(0,10.4) -- (A.east);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{A simplified version of Comstock et al.'s (1978) model of television effects on individual behaviour.}
\label{fig:modtvb}
\end{figure}


## 9.3 Fourth Example

The Output: The codes:

\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}
\node[ellipse,draw=black!55,thick,align=center,fill=red!11,text height =.2cm,text width=3.7cm,minimum width =2cm] (A) at (0,0) {PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=5cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=3.1cm,xshift=5cm,yshift=-.5cm] (RA) at (A.south east) {PERIPHERAL ATTITUDE SHIFT\\Changed attitude is relatively temporary, susceptible to counterpersuasion, and unpredictive of behaviour};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=6cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=1.7cm,yshift=-2.2cm] (B) at (A) {MOTIVATED TO PROCESS?\\(personal relevance, need for cognition, etc.)};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=6cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=1.7cm,yshift=-2.5cm] (C) at (B) {ABILITY TO PROCESS?\\(distraction, repetition, knowledge,etc.)};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=5cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=2.6cm,yshift=-3.8cm] (RC) at (RA) {IS A PERIPHERAL PROCESS OPERATING?\\(identification with source, use of heuristics balance theory, etc.)};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=0pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=6cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=2.2cm,yshift=-2.7cm] (D) at (C) {WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE PROCESSING?\\(argument quality, initial attitude,etc.)};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=0pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=3cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=2.6cm,xshift=1.513cm,yshift=-1.29cm] (D1) at (D.south west) {MORE FAVOURABLE THOUGHTS THAN\\ BEFORE?};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=0pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=3cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=2.6cm,xshift=-1.513cm,yshift=-1.29cm] (D2) at (D.south east) {MORE UNFAVOURABLE THOUGHTS THAN\\ BEFORE?};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=5cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=2.1cm,yshift=-8.5cm] (RD) at (RA) {RETAIN INITIAL ATTITUDE\\Attitude does not change from previous position};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=6cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=2.2cm,yshift=-5.7cm] (E) at (D) {IS THERE A CHANGE IN COGNITIVE STRUCTURE?\\(thought rehearsal, ease of generation, etc.)};
\node[inner sep=0pt,draw=black!55,thick,rounded corners=1pt,align=center,fill=blue!11,text width=6cm,minimum width=1cm, minimum height=3.7cm,yshift=-4cm] (F) at (E) {};
\node[text width=3cm,align=center,xshift=-1.5cm,yshift=.8cm] (F1) at (F) {CENTRAL POSITIVE ATTITUDE CHANGE};
\node[text width=3cm,align=center,xshift=1.5cm,yshift=.8cm] (F1) at (F) {CENTRAL NEGATIVE ATTITUDE CHANGE};
\node[text width=6.8cm,align=center,yshift=-1.1cm] (F1) at (F) {Changed attitude is relatively enduring, resistant to counter persuasion, and predictive of behaviour};
%
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (A) -- (B);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (B) --node[color=black,midway,right,xshift=0cm,yshift=0mm] {If yes}  (C);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (C) --node[color=black,midway,right,xshift=0cm,yshift=0mm] {If yes}  (D);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (D1.south) --node[color=black,midway,right,xshift=0cm,yshift=0mm] {If yes}  ($(E.north)+(-1.5,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (D2.south) --node[color=black,midway,right,xshift=0cm,yshift=0mm] {If yes}  ($(E.north)+(1.5,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] ($(E.south)+(-1.5,0)$) --node[align=left,color=black,midway,right,xshift=0cm,yshift=0mm] {If yes\\[-.2em](faviourable)}  ($(F.north)+(-1.5,0)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] ($(E.south)+(1.5,0)$) --node[align=left,color=black,midway,right,xshift=0cm,yshift=0mm] {If yes\\[-.2em](unfaviourable)}  ($(F.north)+(1.5,0)$);
%right col
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] ($(RA.west)+(0,-.69)$) --node[color=black,midway,below,xshift=-.1cm,yshift=0mm] {If no} ($(B.east)+(0,.5)$);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (RC) --node[color=black,midway,above,left,xshift=.1cm,yshift=-1mm] {If yes} (RA);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (B.east) --(RC.west);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (C.east) --node[color=black,midway,above,xshift=-.1cm,yshift=-1mm] {If no} (RC.west);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (RC) --node[color=black,midway,left,xshift=0cm,yshift=0mm] {If no} (RD);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] ($(D2.east)+(0,.3)$) --node[color=black,midway,above,xshift=0cm,yshift=-1mm] {If no} (RD);
\draw[>=latex,->,color=black!55,thick,line width=1pt] (E.east) -- ++(7,0) --node[color=black,midway,above,xshift=-6.2cm,yshift=-4.2cm] {If yes} ++(0,8.29) -- (RC.east);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{The elaboration-likelihood model of persuasion and information processing (Petty et al., 2002:166)}
\label{fig:modpip}
\end{figure}


# 10 An Ugly and Awful Figure

The Output: The codes:

\tikzset{three sided/.style={
draw=none,
append after command={
[shorten <= -0.5\pgflinewidth]
([shift={(-1.5\pgflinewidth,-0.5\pgflinewidth)}]\tikzlastnode.north east)
edge([shift={( 0.5\pgflinewidth,-0.5\pgflinewidth)}]\tikzlastnode.north west)
([shift={( 0.5\pgflinewidth,-0.5\pgflinewidth)}]\tikzlastnode.north west)
edge([shift={( 0.5\pgflinewidth,+0.5\pgflinewidth)}]\tikzlastnode.south west)
([shift={( 0.5\pgflinewidth,+0.5\pgflinewidth)}]\tikzlastnode.south west)
edge([shift={(-1.0\pgflinewidth,+0.5\pgflinewidth)}]\tikzlastnode.south east)
}
}
}
\begin{figure}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tikzpicture}[thick, inner sep=0pt]
\node [three sided,minimum height=20cm,minimum width=6cm,] (1) at (0,0)  {};
\node [text width=6cm,yshift=10cm,xshift=6cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{1.}The heroine's social identity is thrown into question};
\node [three sided,minimum height=18.5cm,minimum width=5cm,xshift=-2.5cm] (2) at (1.east)  {};
\node [text width=6cm,yshift=9.25cm,xshift=6cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{2.}The heroine reacts antagonistically to an aristocratic male};
\node [three sided,minimum height=16.5cm,minimum width=4cm,xshift=-2cm] (3) at (1.east)  {};
\node [text width=6cm,yshift=8.25cm,xshift=6cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{3.}The aristocratic male responds ambiguously to the heroine};
\node [three sided,minimum height=15cm,minimum width=3cm,xshift=-1.5cm] (4) at (1.east)  {};
\node [text width=7cm,yshift=7.5cm,xshift=6.5cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{4.}The heroine interprets the hero's behaviour as evidence of a purely sexual interest in her};
\node [three sided,minimum height=13.5cm,minimum width=2cm,xshift=-1cm] (5) at (1.east)  {};
\node [text width=6cm,yshift=6.75cm,xshift=6cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{5.}The heroine responds to the hero's behaviour with anger or coldness};
\node [three sided,minimum height=12cm,minimum width=1cm,xshift=-.5cm] (6) at (1.east)  {};
\node [text width=8cm,yshift=6cm,xshift=7cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{6.}The hero retaliates by punishing the heroine};
\node [text width=6cm,xshift=6cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{7.}The heroine and hero are physically and/or emotionally separated};
\node [text width=6cm,yshift=-6cm,xshift=6cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{8.}The hero treats the heroine tenderly};
\node [text width=6cm,yshift=-6.75cm,xshift=6cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{9.}The heroine responds warmly to the hero's act of tenderness};
\node [text width=8cm,yshift=-7.5cm,xshift=7cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{10.}The heroine reinterprets the hero's ambiguous behaviour as the product of previous hurt};
\node [text width=8cm,yshift=-8.5cm,xshift=7cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{11.}The hero proposes/openly declares his love for/demonstrates his unwavering commitment to the heroine with a supreme act of tenderness};
\node [text width=6cm,yshift=-9.4cm,xshift=6cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{12.}The heroine responds sexually and emotionally to the hero};
\node [text width=8cm,yshift=-10cm,xshift=7cm] at (1)  {\footnotesize \textbf{13.}The heroine's identity is restored};
\draw[>=latex,->,dashed,color=blue!55,thick,line width=2pt] ($(6.north east)+(-1,-3)$) -- ++(5,0) --node[color=black,midway,above,xshift=-2.5cm,yshift=-.5cm] {\parbox{4cm}{\textbf{This explanatory link is revealed only later}}} ++(0,-1) -| (1.south west);
\end{tikzpicture}
\caption{The narrative logic of the romance (Radway, 1984:150)}
\label{fig:tnlrom}
\end{figure}


Reprint policy 清世何須憂廟廊——漢語詩詞 LaTeX 樣式 Zhmakeindex and the Indices Creating of Chinese Books